Saturday, December 21, 2019

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-uninfected, rituximab treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

"Patients who had pneumocystis prophylaxis, whether or not they had a pneumocystis infection later in their treatment course, had significantly better first-year survival rates (73% vs. 38%). Regular pneumocystis prophylaxis should be considered in this group of patients."



Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-uninfected, rituximab treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients.:

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Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in HIV-uninfected, rituximab treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients.

Sci Rep. 2018 05 29;8(1):8321

Authors: Wei KC, Sy C, Wu SY, Chuang TJ, Huang WC, Lai PC

Abstract

Rituximab is associated with a higher incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia infection. Pneumocystis prophylaxis is advised in many immunocompromised populations treated with rituximab. However, the beneficial effect of pneumocystis prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected, rituximab-treated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients has not been assessed. Thus, we conducted this retrospective study to explore pneumocystis infection in HIV-uninfected NHL patients who received at least three courses of chemotherapy without haematopoietic stem cell transplantation using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who had rituximab-based chemotherapy were included in the experimental (rituximab) group, while the rest of the patients who did not receive any rituximab-based chemotherapy throughout the study period formed the control group. The prevalence rate of pneumocystis infection in the rituximab group (N = 7,554) was significantly higher than that in the control group (N = 4,604) (2.95% vs. 1.32%). The onset of pneumocystis infection occurred between 6 and 16 weeks after chemotherapy. Patients who had pneumocystis prophylaxis, whether or not they had a pneumocystis infection later in their treatment course, had significantly better first-year survival rates (73% vs. 38%). Regular pneumocystis prophylaxis should be considered in this group of patients.

PMID: 29844519 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The Finer Things: Engaging With The Arts Lowers Risk Of Death, Study Finds

Even engaging with the arts a few times a year seems to have a meaningful impact upon longevity. - TFH



The Finer Things: Engaging With The Arts Lowers Risk Of Death, Study Finds:

Woman sitting at art gallery or museum
New study shows that older adults who regularly enjoy fine arts activities lower their risk of death by 31 percent. Researchers say these individuals also displayed superior cognition skills and mental health. LONDON — When was your last visit to the local art gallery? If you haven’t indulged in some culture in a while, you should…

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A multi-centered study of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with respiratory disorders: Is there a colonization trend in the elderly?

Important study found that pneumocystis jirovecii colonization was common in the elderly, acting as a potential source of infection for others. - TFH.



A multi-centered study of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with respiratory disorders: Is there a colonization trend in the elderly?:

Related Articles
A multi-centered study of Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization in patients with respiratory disorders: Is there a colonization trend in the elderly?

Curr Med Mycol. 2019 Sep;5(3):19-25

Authors: Abastabar M, Mosayebi E, Shokohi T, Hedayati MT, Jabari Amiri MR, Seifi Z, Haghani I, Aliyali M, Saber S, Sheikholeslami MF

Abstract

Background and Purpose: Pneumocystis jirovecii colonization plays a key role in the progression of pulmonary infection. However, there are limited data regarding the colonization of these fungi in the patients residing in different regions of Iran. Regarding this, the present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization in non-HIV-infected patients with respiratory failure introduced by physicians using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 136 samples obtained from 136 patients with respiratory disorders referring to different hospitals in the capital and north of Iran during 2013-2015. The samples were collected using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL; n=121) and sputum induction (n=15). Nested PCR method targeting mtLSU rRNA gene was used for the detection of P. jirovecii DNA in the specimens.

Results: The nested PCR analysis resulted in the detection of P. jirovecii DNA in 32 (23.5%) patients. The mean age of the participants was 49.04±11.94 years (age range: 14-90 years). The results revealed no correlation between Pneumocystis colonization and gender. The studied patients were divided into two groups of immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. In the regard, 25.4% of the patients with detectable P. jirovecii DNA were immunocompromised and had cancer, organ transplantation, asthma, sarcoidosis, dermatomyositis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and pulmonary vasculitis. On the other hand, Pneumocystis DNA was detected in 21.8% of the immunocompetent patients. Frequencies of P. jirovecii DNA detection in the patients with tuberculosis, hydatid cyst, and unknown underlying diseases were obtained as 20.8%, 25%, and 22%, respectively. The prevalence of Pneumocystis colonization varied based on age. In this regard, P. jirovecii colonization was more prevalent in patients aged above 70 years.

Conclusion: As the findings indicated, non-HIV-infected patients, especially the elderly, had a high prevalence of P. jirovecii colonization. Therefore, these patients are probably a potential source of infection for others. Regarding this, it is of paramount importance to adopt monitoring and prophylactic measures to reduce this infection.

PMID: 31850392 [PubMed]

Influence of co-initiation of antiulcer drugs on persistence and adherence to low-dose aspirin: A retrospective cohort study using a Japanese claims database
.

All of the recent studies saying that low dose aspirin risks may outweigh benefits don't correct for H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitor use. This study does, and finds that antiulcer drugs increase therapy persistence. Why? Likely because of fewer GI side-effects.



Influence of co-initiation of antiulcer drugs on persistence and adherence to low-dose aspirin: A retrospective cohort study using a Japanese claims database
.:

Related Articles
Influence of co-initiation of antiulcer drugs on persistence and adherence to low-dose aspirin: A retrospective cohort study using a Japanese claims database
.

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Dec 19;:

Authors: Iwasawa M, Sagami K, Yokoyama S, Hosomi K, Takada M

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether co-initiation of antiulcer drugs (AUDs) and low-dose aspirin (LDA) therapy is beneficial for good adherence to LDA therapy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the JMDC claims database. Patients for whom LDA therapy was newly initiated between January 2005 and April 2016 were selected from the JMDC database. The selected patients were divided into LDA and LDA+AUD groups and were followed up from the first prescription of LDA or LDA+AUD until the earliest of the following events: discontinuation or the end of the observation period. Unadjusted and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models controlling for all demographic and clinical characteristics were applied to examine whether the addition of an AUD to LDA improved adherence. A 1 : 1 propensity score matching analysis was conducted to balance confounders between the two groups.

RESULTS: After the propensity score matching analysis, 4,089 patients were matched in each therapy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves for the rate of LDA continuation showed a sharp decline just after the initiation of LDA therapy. A significant difference was observed in the incidence of LDA therapy discontinuation between the LDA+AUD and LDA groups (HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82 - 0.92), and the median duration of LDA therapy in the LDA+AUD and LDA groups were 18 and 11 months (log-rank test: p < 0.0001), respectively.

CONCLUSION: The therapy persistence rate in the LDA+AUD group was significantly higher than that in the LDA group.
.

PMID: 31854295 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Prevent Extra Holiday Pounds By Stepping On A Scale Each Day, Study Suggests

This is a good idea. -TFH



Prevent Extra Holiday Pounds By Stepping On A Scale Each Day, Study Suggests:

Person standing on scale, weighing themself
ATHENS, Ga. — Everybody loves a good stocking stuffer for Christmas, but if you’re trying to avoid feeling stuffed yourself come January 2nd, a recent study has a novel suggestion for keeping off holiday pounds. Researchers say that taking a few minutes each day to step on the scale may be all it takes to keeping…

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Sunday, December 15, 2019

Vexed Voters: 8 In 10 Americans Say Politics Are BIGGEST Source Of Stress In Life

Why do we allow cable news channels in patient rooms? - TFH



Vexed Voters: 8 In 10 Americans Say Politics Are BIGGEST Source Of Stress In Life:

Cracked, split American flag indicates divided country
New survey reveals nearly 7 in 10 adults say their lives have never been more stressful than now. Two-thirds of Americans say all this anxiety is making them less productive at work! NEW YORK — U.S. politics have never felt quite as contemptuous, and unavoidable, as they do today. We’re a nation of people who are…

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Friday, December 6, 2019

Association of Aspirin Use With Mortality Risk Among Older Adult Participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

Don't give up on aspirin yet! This trial should an all-cause mortality. - TFH



Association of Aspirin Use With Mortality Risk Among Older Adult Participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.:

Related Articles
Association of Aspirin Use With Mortality Risk Among Older Adult Participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Dec 02;2(12):e1916729

Authors: Loomans-Kropp HA, Pinsky P, Cao Y, Chan AT, Umar A

Abstract

Importance: Aspirin use has been associated with reduced risk of cancer mortality, particularly of the colorectum. However, aspirin efficacy may be influenced by biological characteristics, such as obesity and age. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and conflicting data regarding the effect of aspirin in older adults, understanding the potential association of aspirin use with cancer mortality according to body mass index (BMI) and age is imperative.

Objectives: To investigate the association of aspirin use with risk of all-cause, any cancer, gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality among older adults and to perform an exploratory analysis of the association of aspirin use with mortality stratified by BMI.

Design, Setting, Participants: This cohort study evaluated aspirin use among participants aged 65 years and older in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial at baseline (November 8, 1993, to July 2, 2001) and follow-up (2006-2008). Analysis began in late 2018 and was completed in September 2019.

Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause, any cancer, GI cancer, or CRC mortality. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs were calculated using time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, adjusting for additional factors.

Results: A total of 146 152 individuals (mean [SD] age at baseline, 66.3 [2.4] years; 74 742 [51.1%] women; 129 446 [88.6%] non-Hispanic white) were included in analysis. The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 12.5 (8.7-16.4) years, encompassing 1 822 164 person-years. Compared with no use, aspirin use 1 to 3 times per month was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88; P < .001) and cancer mortality (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.81-0.94; P < .001). Aspirin use 3 or more times per week was associated with decreased risk of mortality of all causes (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.80-0.83; P < .001), any cancer (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.81-0.88; P < .001), GI cancer (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.84; P < .001), and CRC (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61-0.84; P < .001). When stratified by BMI (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), aspirin use 3 or more times per week among individuals with BMI 20 to 24.9 was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.78-0.85; P < .001) and any cancer mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82; P < .001). Among individuals with BMI 25 to 29.9, aspirin use 3 or more times per week was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.85; P < .001), any cancer mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91; P < .001), GI cancer mortality (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.86; P < .001), and CRC mortality (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51-0.85; P = .001).

Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, aspirin use 3 or more times per week was associated with a reduction in all-cause, cancer, GI cancer and CRC mortality in older adults.

PMID: 31800071 [PubMed - in process]

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Playing Non-Digital Board, Card Games Helps Keep Brain Stronger For Old Age

Makes sense. -TFH



Playing Non-Digital Board, Card Games Helps Keep Brain Stronger For Old Age:

Couple playing board game
EDINBURGH, Scotland — A new study finds that playing board and card games regularly may help your mental performance in the game of life as you grow older. No, not the board game, the real game of life. Researchers at the University of Edinburgh say that participants who reported routinely playing non-digital games performed better on…

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Find the Joy

Lyrics I don’t know why it happened. Where it’s going, a mystery. Somewhere there’s an answer, But the hurt is still inside. And time just k...