Thyroid nodules are common, but only a small percentage are malignant. This article provides an overview of thyroid cancer and outlines various imaging modalities' clinical evaluation and role. Ultrasound and fine needle aspiration are the first line, but radionuclide imaging helps further characterize indeterminate nodules. PET/CT with FDG is particularly useful for more aggressive histologies and radioiodine-negative tumors. The expanding use of molecular imaging like PET/CT continues to improve sensitivity and specificity in evaluating thyroid cancer.
Heston TF, Wahl RL. (2010). Molecular imaging in thyroid cancer. Cancer Imaging 10(1):1-7. DOI: 10.1102/1470-7330.2010.0002